It is worth mentioning the axiological normative system of informal control based on the power conditioning of conducts – moderating or degenerating them – inherent in the cultural values practiced. Paragraphs arras presented itself devaluation of life as a synthesis of all the inducers of violence or as their origin.
It is very likely that the second hypothesis is true from the beginning point of a vicious cycle whose components are perversely reinforced; the unimportance of life being the result of the secularization of religions and the emptying of the spiritual and transcendental meaning of existence. The vacuum thus created would have been occupied by values of a sub-culture such as consumerism, hedonism, rapid success without persevering effort and at any cost generators or stimulators of the greater part of the inducers of violence.
Values proclaimed by our society, recognized as those of our true culture – family, dignity of the person, solidarity, tolerance, freedom, truth, honesty, mysticism, etc. would be muted or even absent in the morality and ethics of the youth-giving universes for delinquency.
In the same way that each inciter of violence must be confronted with adequate public policies (and the Urban Violence Prevention Plan is designed to integrate them) to rebuild social control, we must also confront subculture through reconstruction or strengthening of the true values of culture, and, identically, it can only be done by combining State and Society, especially within the communities.
A kind of Moral Law
The vehicle of this ethical re-evaluation effort must be education in its broadest and most profound sense, which only materializes when holistically approached the surrounding community reality of the young, final target. A kind of Moral Law, synthesized as respect for life or value of life, must permeate the whole of society and the State, in the totality of the manifestations of both the everyday and the extraordinary.
I think it is a matter of peace that leaders and community leaders should imbue themselves with the ethics of government or popular leadership. This ethic has two aspects. The first, the personal ethics of the delegates of the people, and at the same time self-improvement and self-vigilance, according to the individual effort to incorporate and strengthen within them the values of the national culture, and to treat management of public affairs.
Basic, “sine qua non” conditions, is commonly confused with the total required ethics of so-called public men and women. When this occurs, when it is considered quite, an end in itself, it assumes vanity features such as ostentation of integrity of character and probity, in the case of egocentrism, or genuine and limited sense of personal fulfillment with Characteristics of selfishness. Either way, it’s ethics-for-the-ego; in reality, non-ethics. The second strand can be called altruistic ethics, turned to the “alter”, to the other, to the people. It is vertebrated by the resultant of external vectors launched from the platform of positive personal ethics, without egocentric or selfish distortion. If ethics-for-the-ego ignores the world (the people), thereby denying life, the altruistic one recognizes and affirms them. Practiced by the ruler and the community leader, he attributes ethical legitimacy to the exercise of power, humanity to efficient public management, and empathize with the people. From the composition of the two affirmative strands arises the integral ethics of government and community leadership, creating conditions for the emergence of the Moral Law. In it begins the education for the ethical strengthening of young people, through the strongest of educational instruments, the example.
Value of tolerance
From this solid moral position, leaders and community leaders, associated with the third sector and entrepreneurs stimulated by the government to play their social role, will guide actions and programs for the values proclaimed, according to the circumstances of each state, municipality and local community, with focus in the child and the youth in their environments in the family, in school, in leisure, in churches, in cultural activities, in sports competitions, etc. In these situations, the value of tolerance, in the positive denotation of recognition and acceptance of differences, catalyst for dialogue between generations, classes, categories, public and private administrative levels, people in general. And the only way to exchange experiences, join the unequal to just causes beneficial to the community, create social synergy from individual energies.
When the police action at the base of the pyramid, two types must be defined, both indispensable and whose success presupposes well-equipped, scientifically and technically upgraded, operationally integrated police and composed of well-paid and continuously trained police officers. One type and the repressive, caudatory action of operations at the intermediate level, directed against those who have already been incorporated into delinquent gangs. It is a fundamental step for the beginning of the resumption of formal social control in areas dominated by crime. The other is directed at populations not yet controlled by gangs or already liberated by repression, and community policing, a concept that fits very well with the postulates of the new Criminology, because it allows the integration of informal agents of social control with the formal police, in the environment in which the recipients of the provision of security live. Among the advantages derived from the trust that naturally arises from this interaction, the tendency of a strong decrease in occurrence underreporting and preventive or enlightening reports of crimes has an immediate positive influence on the effectiveness of police action and the consequent strengthening of formal social control. This facilitates the rooting of social policy actions such as the Plan for the Prevention of Urban Violence, generating the virtuous cycle of definitive affirmation of the two instances of social control. Integrated Citizenship Centers – CICs can be emblematic physical centers of convergence and irradiation of vectors of such a cycle, with facilities for meetings with community leaders, and for police, social assistance, Justice and Public Prosecutor’s offices,, the Public Defender, mediators, etc …
The new paradigm of coping with crime devotes special attention to the victims of delinquency. They can not remain detached from the process or just acting as witnesses. As co-protagonists of the offending moment, they must remain so throughout the investigative and penal process. Safeguarded, and very true, but permanent attention of the justice system, so that they do not suffer a second victimization due to the lack of police and judicial measures. In the same way, the community must spare them from tertiary victimization due to insolidarity. In cases of delinquency involving interpersonal conflicts, a restorative view of justice, placing victim and criminal in interaction throughout the process, creates favorable circumstances to prevent victimization from becoming a feedback factor of violence. Mediation, outside criminal proceedings, and conciliation, if the proceedings are inevitable, are very appropriate tools for this approach.
Pyramid of criminality
The planning, implementation and control of all this strategy of deconstruction of the pyramid of criminality requires, first of all, a systemic vision that is concretized in A National System of Public Security, composed by the Subsystems of Prevention and Repression. A National Council would be the normative organ of the system and articulator of the policies of primary, tertiary, victimization, and repression (secondary prevention, due to its dissuasive essence dependent on police and criminal effectiveness, does not imply specific politics or organs). The central body of the Repression Subsystem would be the new ministry, structured from the current National Secretariat of Public Security, which would subordinate only the Federal Police, the Federal Highway Police, the Council and the National Transit Department, and articulate with the System (Financial Control Council, Research and Investigation Coordination Office of the Federal Revenue Secretariat and Department of Financial and Foreign Exchange Control of the Central Bank, coordinated for the purpose of combating money laundering by the first). It would have an Intelligence Department, central organ of the National System of Intelligence of Public Security.
The Prevention Subsystem would provide primary education, which could remain as it is today, with the Secretariat of Prevention of Urban Violence and the National Anti-Drug Secretariat in the Office of Institutional Security of the Presidency of the Republic, given the need for broad articulation with ministries, states and municipalities. Tertiary and victimization prevention would be carried out by a Department of Criminal Executions and Social Reintegration to be established in the Ministry of Justice and Citizenship (renamed). It is not justified to centralize all types of prevention in a single organ, because secondary, tertiary and victimization are direct consequences of the effectiveness of autonomous sectoral functional activities, unlike primary, intensive, integrated and focused.
Such attribution of competencies has the advantages of allowing wide scope of national coordination of specific policies, strategies and actions; make the most of existing structures and accumulated experiences; create new structures for sectors no longer served by old ones; and, above all, to focus on coping with each cause and consequence of crime, thus optimizing the use of available human, material and budgetary resources.
As a conclusion, we can synthesize the diagnosis and solution of the problems of Public Security in the country with the following ideas: 1) socially relevant crime is structured vertically, having as a backbone, between the top and middle levels of the pyramid, the great financing with illegal capital, and, between these and the base, the hierarchy of gangs; 2) The top vitally needs to launder much of the illegal money; 3) at the base of the pyramid are predominantly criminogenic social and cultural circumstances; 4) The confrontation of crime requires specific preventive and repressive actions that are systemically integrated, involving communities, municipalities, states, the Federal Government and, in primary prevention, the third sector; 5) In order to do so, the three levels of public administration must be organized into systems.